Athens maintained its empire through naval power. Thus, the two powers were relatively unable to fight decisive battles. The Spartan strategy during the first war, known as the Archidamian War (431–421 BC) after Sparta’s king Archidamus II, was to invade the land surrounding Athens.
Sparta was leader of an alliance of independent states that included most of the major land powers of the Peloponnese and central Greece, as well as the sea power Corinth. Thus, the Athenians had the stronger navy and the Spartans the stronger army.
Hostilities resumed between Athens and Sparta with an assault launched by the Athenians at Sicily. Sparta decided to retaliate. Learning from its past experiences with the Athenian navy, they established a fleet of warships.
What was Athens military strength?
The Athenians kept pace with rising territorial commitments by greatly increasing the size of their military. Athens’ army went from a late sixth-century bc count of 3,600 armored spearmen to 13,000 citizen regulars on the rolls by 431 bc. Likewise, the Athenian fleet grew from 60 to 300 ships over the same period.
Why was Sparta’s military better than Athens?
Sparta is far superior to Athens because their army was fierce and protective, girls received some education and women had more freedom than in other poleis. First, the army of Sparta was the strongest fighting force in Greece. … The Spartans believed this made them strong and better mothers.
Why were Athens and Sparta rivals?
The reasons for this war are sometimes traced back as far as the democratic reforms of Cleisthenes, which Sparta always opposed. However, the more immediate reason for the war was Athenian control of the Delian League, the vast naval alliance that allowed it to dominate the Mediterranean Sea.
How was Athens different from Sparta?
The main difference between Athens and Sparta is that Athens was a form of democracy, whereas Sparta was a form of oligarchy. … Moreover, Athens’ economy was mainly based on trade, whereas Sparta’s economy was based on agriculture and conquering.
Threatened with starvation, the Athenian fleet had no choice but to follow. Through cunning strategy, Lysander totally defeated the Athenian fleet, in 405 BC, at the Battle of Aegospotami, destroying 168 ships and capturing some three or four thousand Athenian sailors.
Why did Athens lose to Sparta?
Under the Spartan general Lysander, the war raged for another decade. By in 405 B.C. Lysander decimated the Athenian fleet in battle and then held Athens under siege, forcing it to surrender to Sparta in 404 B.C.
Athens emerged from the war as the strongest naval power in the Aegean and in the course of the following decades forged an empire with tributary territory in the Aegean, the mainland of Asia Minor and in Greece itself that made her one of the two great powers on the mainland.
Athens used money generated from their silver deposits to build ships and train the soldiers who would fight in the navy. … The navy grew stronger and when the time came, Themistocles proved to be correct. The Athenian Navy was far superior to the Persian Navy.
‘ This Athenian naval reputation resulted largely from the role played by the Athenian fleet in the defeat of the Persians at Salamis in 480 and also from the Athenian maritime empire which enjoyed hegemony in the Aegean following the Persian Wars. Clearly, Athens was the pre-eminent naval power among the Greek states.
Who were Athens best warriors?
Megarians, like all the Greeks, were trained warriors. Spartans might be the best warriors, but all Greek citizens knew how to fight. Megarians would fight if they had to, but they would much rather trade or negotiate. In the ancient Greek world, Megara was famous for its textiles.
Did Athens ever defeat Sparta?
When Sparta defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War, it secured an unrivaled hegemony over southern Greece. Sparta’s supremacy was broken following the Battle of Leuctra in 371 BC. It was never able to regain its military superiority and was finally absorbed by the Achaean League in the 2nd century BC.
Athens, by far, had the best navy of all of the ancient Greek city-states.
Who won the Persian War?
Though the outcome of battles seemed to tip in Persia’s favor (such as the famed battle at Thermopylae where a limited number of Spartans managed to wage an impressive stand against the Persians), the Greeks won the war. There are two factors that helped the Greeks defeat the Persian Empire.