How did hoplite warfare change Greek society?
With the development of the hoplite phalanx, war was no longer merely an act to accrue honor and loot; it became a matter of defending one’s land and livelihood. Moreover, warfare became more egalitarian. Officers fought and died within the ranks. Champions no longer existed.
How did the hoplite phalanx help the polis?
Hoplites1 were infantrymen clad in metal body armor2, and they constituted the main strike force of the citizen militias that defended Greek city-states in the period before navies became important. Men armed as hoplites marched into combat shoulder to shoulder in a rectangular formation called a phalanx3.
What is a hoplite and why was it important to the citizens of the polis?
Each soldier in a phalanx was called a hoplite. Each hoplite had to be a free Greek citizen of his polis and had to be able to pay for his own weapons and armor.
What are hoplites and why are they important to Greece?
A hoplite (from ta hopla meaning tool or equipment) was the most common type of heavily armed foot-soldier in ancient Greece from the 7th to 4th centuries BCE, and most ordinary citizens of Greek city-states with sufficient means were expected to equip and make themselves available for the role when necessary.
How were hoplites different from earlier Greek soldiers?
Hoplites (HOP-lytes) (Ancient Greek: ὁπλίτης : hoplítēs) were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields. Hoplite soldiers used the phalanx formation to be effective in war with fewer soldiers. … In the 8th or 7th century BC, Greek armies adopted the phalanx formation.
What was the effect of hoplite warfare on the Greek Poleis?
Hoplite warfare effected the Greek poleis in that it was start of democracy. Since the hoplites were also everyday citizens, they wanted to have a say in what wars they were fighting in.
What did hoplites do?
hoplite, heavily armed ancient Greek foot soldier whose function was to fight in close formation. Until his appearance, probably in the late 8th century bce, individual combat predominated in warfare.
What did hoplites wear?
A Greek foot soldier was called a hoplite. He wore a linen shirt with metal armour plates on the shoulders. A bronze breastplate covered his chest and stomach, and greaves (shin guards) covered his legs. He wore a bronze helmet with a tall crest on his head.
What was the purpose of the phalanx used by the hoplites?
The hoplite phalanx of the Archaic and Classical periods in Greece (c. 800–350 BC) was the formation in which the hoplites would line up in ranks in close order. The hoplites would lock their shields together, and the first few ranks of soldiers would project their spears out over the first rank of shields.
How did geography help shape Greek civilization?
The mountains isolated Greeks from one another, which caused Greek communities to develop their own way of life. Greece is made up of many mountains, isolated valleys, and small islands. This geography prevented the Greeks from building a large empire like that of Egypt or Mesopotamia.
How did hoplites fight?
How did hoplites fight? Hoplites usually fought in a battle formation called the phalanx. A phalanx was made up of ranks and files. A rank was a row of hoplites, their shields held in their left hands and overlapping slightly.
How many hoplites did Athens have?
Citizens were precious. We know that Athens, for example, was able to put eight thousand men into the field for Plataia in 479 (Hdt., IX, 28), with perhaps one thousand more at Marathon in 490, but she still had only thirteen thousand hoplites in 431 (Thuc, II, 13).
Did hoplites use swords?
Sword. As a secondary weapon, hoplites are known to have carried a short sword known as the xiphos which was made from iron or bronze depending on the era. This was used in the event of a broken spear, or if close melee combat was necessary.
How many hoplites did Sparta?
It was, for the Spartans, a must-win engagement in their own Peloponnesian backyard. Faced by a dangerous coalition of disgruntled former allies and traditional enemies, the Spartans and their remaining loyal allies fielded a hoplite army of perhaps 10,000 men, including perhaps 4,000 of the elite Similars.